Under RHEL7 view block devices filesystem is more or less same as we used to do it under RHEL6. Lets understand some interesting commands to view block devices and filesystem under RHEL7.

lsblk command allows you to display a list of available block devices.
lsblk command displays the device name (NAME), major and minor device number (MAJ:MIN), if the device is removable (RM), what is its size (SIZE), if the device is read-only (RO), what type is it (T YPE), and where the device is mounted (MOUNT POINT ). Reember, by default lsblk command shows ouput in tree format. To display the information as an ordinary list, add the -l command line option.

blkid command, as was under RHEL6, in RHEL7 is used to view information about available block devices.

 Be default, the blkid command displays available attributes such as its universally unique identifier (UUID), file system type (T YPE), or volume label (LABEL), as in command one, in above snapshot.

You can also use blkid to display information about a particular device only, specify the device name on the command line – blkid /dev/sda1, as in command two, above snapshot.

Further, you can also use the above command with the -p and -o udev command line options to obtain more detailed information. You need to have root privileges to run the third command in above snapshot.

findmnt command allows you to display a list of currently mounted file systems. findmnt command displays the target mount point (TARGET ), source device (SOURCE), file system type (FSTYPE), and relevant mount options (OPT IONS).

Like lsblk command, findmnt lists file systems in a tree-like format. T o display the information as an ordinary list, add the -l command line option.

Exactly like in RHEL6, here in RHEL7 df command allows you to display a detailed report on the system’s disk space usage. df command displays its name (Filesystem ), size (1K-blocks or Size), how much space is used (Used), how much space is still available (Available), the percentage of space usage (Use%), and where is the file system mounted (Mounted on).

Similar like in RHEL6, the df command in RHEL7 shows the partition size in 1 kilobyte blocks and the amount of used and available disk space in kilobytes. To view the information in megabytes and gigabytes, supply the -h command line option, human-readable format.

du command allows you to displays the amount of space that is being used by files in a directory. Like df, du command displays the disk usage in kilobytes. T o view the information in megabytes and gigabytes, supply the -h command line option and to get the summary information only use -s option.
And lastly, you have the gnome-system-monitor tool in rhel7 viewing block devices & filesystem.

Hi There ...
Welcome to Kali World or let's say Linux Big world
things in windows was much easier  you can install a Software with few Clicks
you can install Drivers with few clicks !

but in Linux is not like that, there is always work to do commands to write simply in Linux you have to do things by your self and yes you have to learn to do it,
so windows was better ? for sure no because here we learn things and there is no virus to be scared off, with Linux everything is under control.
So let's start
few days ago i got kali Linux 1.7 and i wanted to install Nvidia Driver
i went to docs in Kali.org and i did follow the step they write in the page of installing Nvidia drivers in Kali

So i start with
 apt-get update
 apt-get dist-upgrade
 apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r) ! here the problem start
i got this message E: Unable to locate package linux-headers-3.14-kali1-686-pae
So i searched the web with a hope that i find the way to fix it but ... no one is writing a tutorial how to fix Unable to locate package linux-headers-3.14-kali1-686-pae

most of the guys says do apt-get update before apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
 and that is what i did but yet i still have the problem,

so if the  issue should be fixed with apt-get update then maybe the problem here is i'm not getting all the needed updates,

So i had to Check the Repositories at sources.list
to do that go to
File system etc/apt/sources.list
this what your file may have in it "mine was like that"


# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 _Kali_ - Official Snapshot i386 LIVE/INSTALL $

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 _Kali_ - Official Snapshot i386 LIVE/INSTALL $

deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
so what i did now is adding this to line
deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb-src http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
and now the file have all this Repositories

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 _Kali_ - Official Snapshot i386 LIVE/INSTALL $

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0 _Kali_ - Official Snapshot i386 LIVE/INSTALL $

deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free

deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb-src http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
After i added this 2 new Repositories we have to do the update...
apt-get update
apt-get dist-upgrade
apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
and finally
apt-get install nvidia-kernel-dkms
now everything seems to be fine...!

world at war ...
the the interview is the movie that started the cyber  war
form hacking Sony who made the movie to taking down internet service in north Korea then hacking Swiden government site... the hacker attacked Swiden government after the government take 3 torrent site down... those site have some of the data that was stolen from Sony ...
after the Swiden attack today the hackers hacked into USA sites and took about 13,000 credit card with full person data and publish the data online just like they did with Sony data ... and now the attack is at twitter site playing in the service date and forcing large scale Log Out worldwide...

Do you have an Alfa AWUS036NH Wi-Fi adapter that claims it can go to 2000 mWs, or some card that can supposedly transmit power over 1000 mW? If so, you may have run into problems setting your card's TXPOWER higher than 30 dBm, which is about 1000 mW. Well, I will show you how to break that barrier and go as high as you want!


Removing all restrictions is illegal in the United States. This tutorial is only for educational reasons, and if you choose to apply it and break the law, then that is your choice and not mine. Please be careful putting this into action.

Changing Your Wi-Fi Card's TX Power

i will showed you how to set your TXPOWER all the way to 30 dBm, or 1 full watt, or 1000 mW.
I'm going to quickly review the commands to do so:
  • iw reg set BO
  • iwconfig wlan0 txpower 30
If you try to go over 30, though, you will get an error.
What happens is that the iw reg set command reads the regulatory database for the country that you specified (BO) and comes back with the rules for that country. In Bolivia, the rules are that you can set your txpower to 30 dBm and no more, but if we were to change those rules, we could change how much we can increase it to.
So without further delay, let's get into how to change that!
NOTE: KALI users have to do it just a tad bit differently. Go to Step 7 to learn what the differences are. The differences occur in Steps 4 through 6.

Step 1: Install Packages

For this to work, we need to install a couple packages first, and those packages are as follows:
  • python-m2crypto
  • libgcrypt11
  • libgcrypt11-dev
  • libnl-dev
So, let's make sure those are installed:
  • apt-get install python-m2crypto libgcrypt11 libgcrypt11-dev libnl-dev
As you can see, mine were already installed. Yours, however, may not be.

Step 2: The Files

unexpected !
Kali 1.0.8 is here !
The long awaited Kali Linux USB EFI boot support feature has been added to our binary ISO builds, which has prompted this early Kali Linux 1.0.8 release. This new feature simplifies getting Kali installed and running on more recent hardware which requires EFI as well as various Apple Macbooks Air and Retina models. Besides the addition of EFI support, there is a whole array of tool updates and fixes that have accumulated over the past couple of months.
Kali 1.0.8

So what we get more with this new Release ?
here is a list of the change and update

bc utility is surely one of the underdogs when it comes to calculations on command line.
It’s a feature rich utility that has its own fan base but needs time to get comfortable with
linux bc command calculations

  • bc is included with (almost?) all Linux distros as standard, as well as (again, almost?) all Unices.
  • Results from calculations in some proprietary flavours of bc have up to 99 decimal digits before and after the decimal point. This limit has been greatly surpassed in GNU bc. I don't know what that limit is, but it's at least many, many tens of thousands. Certainly it's more than any GUI-based calculators (I've used) could accomodate.
  • You may also find yourself working in an environment where you simply don't have access to a GUI.
  • The syntax for basic sums is almost identical to Google's calculator function, so you can learn how to use two utilities in one go!
bc is a preprocessor for dc. The useful thing about bc is that it accepts input from files and from standard input. This allows us to pipe data to it for quick calculations.

basename command in Kali Linux

basename command

Basename is a simple command which returns the file name string without any path info and it is mostly used in shell scripts.
It can also remove the file extension, and return only the file name without an extension.
The syntax of basename command is as follows,
basename String [ Suffix ]
basename OPTION string – input string Suffix – string needs to be removed from the input
-a, --multiple
support multiple arguments and treat each as a NAME.
-s, --suffix=SUFFIX
remove a trailing suffix SUFFIX, such as a file extension.
-z, --zero
separate output with NUL rather than a newline.
display help information and exit.
output version information and exit.
 basename /usr/bin/sort
 Outputs the string "sort". 

basename include/stdio.h .h
 Outputs the string "stdio".
basename -s .h include/stdio.h
 Outputs the string "stdio".
basename -a any/str1 any/str2
Outputs the string "str1" followed by the string "str2".

aspell linux command
what is aspell ?
it's a GNU Aspell is a Free and Open Source spell checker designed to eventually replace Ispell.
It can either be used as a library or as an independent spell checker.
Its main feature is that it does a much better job of coming up with possible suggestions than just about any other spell checker out there for the Englishlanguage, including Ispell and Microsoft Word. It also has many other technical enhancements over Ispell such as using shared memory for dictionaries and intelligently handling personal dictionaries when more than one Aspell processis open at once.

Linux awk Command
what is awk Command ?
The basic function of awk is to search files for lines (or other units of text) that contain a pattern. When a line matches, awk performs a specific action on that line.
The Program statement that tells awk what to do; consists of a series of "rules". Each rule specifies one pattern to search for, and one action to perform when that pattern is found.
Linux awk Command

How to Use Awk to Find and Sort Text in Linux ?

What do you do?
In its simplest usage awk is meant for processing column-oriented text data, such as tables, presented to it on standard input. The variables $1, $2, and so forth are the contents of the first, second, etc. column of the current input line. For example, to print the second column of a file, you might use the following simple awk script:
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"] awk < file '{ print $2 }' [/success] This means "on every line, print the second field".

To print the second and third columns, you might use
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"] awk < file '{ print $2, $3 }' [/success]
Input separator
By default awk splits input lines into fields based on whitespace, that is, spaces and tabs. You can change this by using the -F option to awk and supplying another character. For instance, to print the home directories of all users on the system, you might do
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"] awk < /etc/passwd -F: '{ print $6 }' [/success] since the password file has fields delimited by colons and the home directory is the 6th field.

Awk is a weakly typed language; variables can be either strings or numbers, depending on how they're referenced. All numbers are floating-point. So to implement the fahrenheit-to-celsius calculator, you might write
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk '{ print ($1-32)*(5/9) }'[/success]
which will convert fahrenheit temperatures provided on standard input to celsius until it gets an end-of-file.

The selection of operators is basically the same as in C, although some of C's wilder constructs do not work. String concatenation is accomplished simply by writing two string expressions next to each other. '+' is always addition. Thus
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"] echo 5 4 | awk '{ print $1 + $2 }' [/success] prints 9, while
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]echo 5 4 | awk '{ print $1 $2 }'[/success]
prints 54. Note that
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"] echo 5 4 | awk '{ print $1, $2 }' [/success] prints "5 4".

awk has some built-in variables that are automatically set; $1 and so on are examples of these. The other builtin variables that are useful for beginners are generally NF, which holds the number of fields in the current input line ($NF gives the last field), and $0, which holds the entire current input line.

You can make your own variables, with whatever names you like (except for reserved words in the awk language) just by using them. You do not have to declare variables. Variables that haven't been explicitly set to anything have the value "" as strings and 0 as numbers.

For example, the following code prints the average of all the numbers on each line:
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk '{ tot=0; for (i=1; i<=NF; i++) tot += $i; print tot/NF; }'[/success]
 Note the use of $i to retrieve the i'th variable, and the for loop, which works like in C. The reason tot is explicitly initialized at the beginning is that this code is run for every input line, and when starting work on the second line, tot will have the total value from the first line.
It might seem silly to do that. Probably, you have only one set of numbers to add up. Why not put each one on its own line? In order to do this you need to be able to print the results when you're done. The way you do this is like this:
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk '{ tot += $1; n += 1; }  END { print tot/n; }'[/success]
Note the use of two different block statements. The second one has END in front of it; this means to run the block once after all input has been processed. In fact, in general, you can put all kinds of things in front of a block, and the block will only run if they're satisfied. That is, you can say
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk ' $1==0 { print $2 }'[/success]    
which will print the second column for lines of input where the first column is 0. You can also supply regular expressions to match the whole line against:
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk ' /^test/ { print $2 }'[/success]  
If you put no expression, the block is run on every line of input. If multiple blocks have conditions that are true, they are all run. There is no particularly clean way I know of to get it to run exactly one of a bunch of possible blocks of code.

The block conditions BEGIN and END are special and are run before processing any input, and after processing all input, respectively.
Other language constructs
As hinted at above, awk supports loop and conditional statements like in C, that is, for, while, do/while, if, and if/else.
awk includes a printf statement that works essentially like C printf. This can be used when you want to format output neatly or combine things onto one line in more complex ways (print implicitly adds a newline; printf doesn't.)

Here's how you strip the first column off:
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk '{ for (i=2; i<=NF; i++) printf "%s ", $i; printf "\n"; }'[/success]    
Note the use of NF to iterate over all the fields and the use of printf to place newlines explicitly.
[success title="awk Command" icon="check-circle"]awk or gawk (gnu awk)[/success]
Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
[success title="Code" icon="check-circle"]awk <options> 'Program' Input-File1 Input-File2 ...

awk -f PROGRAM-FILE <options> Input-File1 Input-File2 ...[/success]

 -F FS
 --field-separator FS
     Use FS for the input field separator (the value of the `FS'
     predefined variable).
     Read the awk program source from the file PROGRAM-FILE, instead
     of from the first command line argument.
 -mf NNN
 -mr NNN
     The `f' flag sets the maximum number of fields, and the `r' flag
     sets the maximum record size.  These options are ignored by
     `gawk', since `gawk' has no predefined limits; they are only for
     compatibility with the Bell Labs research version of Unix awk.
 --assign VAR=VAL
     Assign the variable VAR the value VAL before program execution
 -W traditional
 -W compat
     Use compatibility mode, in which `gawk' extensions are turned off.
 -W lint
    Give warnings about dubious or non-portable awk constructs.
 -W lint-old
     Warn about constructs that are not available in the original
     Version 7 Unix version of awk.
 -W posix
     Use POSIX compatibility mode, in which `gawk' extensions are
     turned off and additional restrictions apply.
 -W re-interval
     Allow interval expressions, in regexps.
 --source PROGRAM-TEXT
     Use PROGRAM-TEXT as awk program source code.  This option allows
     mixing command line source code with source code from files, and is
     particularly useful for mixing command line programs with library
     Signal the end of options.  This is useful to allow further
     arguments to the awk program itself to start with a `-'.  This
     is mainly for consistency with POSIX argument parsing conventions.
     A series of patterns and actions: see below
     If no Input-File is specified then awk applies the Program to
     "standard input", (piped output of some other command or the terminal.
     Typed input will continue until end-of-file (typing `Control-d')

What is apt-get?
apt get list
APT, short for Advanced package Tool, is a package management system.
apt get allows you to quickly and easily install, update, and remove software from the command line. Aside from its simplicity, one of the best things about APT is the face that it automatically resolves dependency issues for you.

This means that if the package you are installing requires additional software, apt get will automatically locate and install the additional software.
This is a massive improvement over the old days of “ dependency hell” .

installing software with apt get is very straightforward.
For example, let us assume you want to install the classic network-mapping tool Cheops, Once you know the name of the package you want to install, from the command line you can run apt-get install followed by the name of the software you want to install.
It is always a good idea to run apt-get update before installing software.
This will insure that you are getting the latest version available.
apt-get command

in this post i will show you how to fix the heating problems of WiFi USB adapters , you can read the store or you can just move to the photos for the fix 
The TX Power of a WiFi adapter can Increase Signal Strength and that mean a better internet and more access point in the List !
usb wifi heating

but you may get your adapter dameged from heat ,a high TX power case so much heat , the higher your TXpower is the hotter the adapter will get , so if we play with the TX power of the adapter we may face a new problem and it's the heat of that adapter and that what happen to me ! 
my WiFi adapter is wifly-city 54G  the TX power of it should go as high as 30 dBm
in windows 7 its working in an auto mood for the TX power and it's not going higher then 10 dbm and sometime even its down to 1 dbm but the good thing is that the internet is working fine most of the time maybe that's cause the AP is close to me but what if i want to connect to a far AP  !

 Linux Command Alias

Most Linux users are well versed in the typing out of lengthy commands in the Terminal. They're especially hardened and generally insured against such sudden lapses in concentration, where they have to go back mid-command to correct an error.
The rest of us, however, have to deal with the fact that an error is inevitable and that we more often than not have to enter the command again to get it working correctly. There is another option available for Linux users, though. Instead of constantly or frequently having to tap out the complex line of instructions, we can instead use an Alias.

New to Kali Linux ? or to Linux world at all ...
welcome to this new experience i'm sure you will enjoy once you start to try ...
and why not to try over and over we are learning at end and this is the most Important part of it,
commands and commands almost everything in Linux need a command we are not in Windows to click we are in Linux to write!
so here is a list for some of the basic commands for Kali Linux
Kali Linux Commands

If you are looking for Linux Chart Sheet Check this post

lets start with details of commands
1.Command: ls
The command “ls” stands for (List Directory Contents), List the contents of the folder, be it file or folder, from which it runs. The most common options are -a (all files) and -l (long or details)
Tab completion is supported and may be configured with .inputrc
When output to file the files are listed one per line.
By default, colour is not used to distinguish types of files. That is equivalent to using --color=none.
Using the --color option without the optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always.
With --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected to a terminal (tty).

Kali Linux sources.list

Fix default repository
First after installing a clean Kali Linux the sources.list counte only tow repository and they are
## Regular repositories
deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
if you try to do update it maybe update a few apps and if you try to install a new app 90% it wont and it will give you a massage like this one
 E: Unable to locate package
Unable to locate package

The simplest way is to edit the
remove or comment every-line with # at the front and add the following lines..

Terminal command :   leafpad /etc/apt/sources.list   
after this comment you will get something like this
now remove every line of them and add this new lines

For Kali Linux 1.x users  use the repo below:
No more update for Kali 1.0 pleas upgrade to new Kali 2016
## Regular repositories
deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
## Source repositories
deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib
deb-src http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free
For Kali Linux 2.0 – Kali Sana  use the repo below:
you Still can receive update for Kali Sana but not for long so please upgrade to Kali 2016.1
# Regular repositories
deb http://http.kali.org/kali sana main non-free contrib
deb http://security.kali.org/kali-security sana/updates main contrib non-free
# Source repositories
deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali sana main non-free contrib
deb-src http://security.kali.org/kali-security sana/updates main contrib non-free
For Kali Linux 2016 – Kali Rolling  use the repo below:
deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali-rolling main contrib non-free
# For source package access, uncomment the following line
# deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali-rolling main contrib non-free
Kali Linux 2017.1 sources.list  use the repo below:
deb http://repo.kali.org/kali kali-rolling main non-free contrib

Save and close the file.   Details and explanations can be found in adding official Kali Linux Repositories page.

 You can check this Video 

Clean, update, upgrade and dist-upgrade your Kali installation.
The command
apt-get clean && apt-get update && apt-get upgrade -y && apt-get dist-upgrade -y

The Kali Rolling Repository
Kali sana (2.0) Repositories
Kali moto (1.0) Repositories
Kali Linux Repositories

The kali-rolling Repository
In contrast to kali-dev, kali-rolling is expected to be of better quality because it’s managed by a tool that ensures installability of all the packages it contains. The tool picks updated packages from kali-dev and copies them to kali-rolling only when they have been verified to be installable.

if you still have any update error pleas check this post
how to update Kali Linux and Fix update error

Have a great day hope i did help :)
leave a comment and you can fine me in Twitter

how to Fix Kali Linux Oh no Something has gone wrong
i have this killer issue when you try to startx Kali Linux after installing it in PC   Oh No something went wrong
First i did the installing from DVD and after i finished installing it I got this massage *Oh no! Something has gone wrong *
Then i did try from USB  and The same issue Still here
And by the way before trying to install it in the hard disk it was not working from Live CD or USB
When ever the system try to load it take about 3 minutes trying to find drive for some USB device   
SO i was installing it the right way but the issue is with my hardware ...
and as i saw in the loading time  it keep trying to load some files  for USB device  so i disconnect all the USB Device but yet i still get the same massage ...

The issue comes  from a USB Card reader that is connected to the motherboard  
after i did remove the cable of that card reader from motherboard the system "Kali Linux" started fine and i did many restart to be sure that its working and yes its working

This is the Device that was making This issue
All in One USB 2.0 Card Reader

So for everyone who facing this issue try removing all USB device and if you have any card reader remove it too
i hope this will work for you

 Kali Linux Logo
Kali Linux is a new open source distribution that facilitates penetration testing. Whereas BackTrack was built on Ubuntu, Kali is built from scratch and constructed on Debian and is FHS-compliant. Kali also has improved software repositories that are synchronized with the Debian repositories so it makes it easier to keep it updated, apply patches and add new tools. It is also easy to customize your own Kali Linux so that it contains only the packages and features that are required. You can also customize your desktop environment to use Gnome(default), KDE, LXDE, XFCE or whatever you prefer.

Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing.
It is maintained and funded by Offensive Security Ltd.
Kali is the rewrite of BackTrack
So Kali is BackTrack 6 ? Kali Linux is The Next BackTrack
is backtrack better ?
no kali is better with all the update it get and the new tools
plus there was so many dead tools in backtrack and it have been removed from kali Linux
What can we do with Kali ?
Kali Linux is preinstalled with numerous penetration-testing programs, including
nmap (a port scanner)
Wireshark (a packet analyzer)
John the Ripper (a password cracker)
Aircrack-ng (a software suite for penetration-testing wireless LANs)

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